Ramadan 2022 was marked by terrorist attacks across Israel, retaliatory operations in the Palestinian territories, and daily clashes in East Jerusalem. Echoing last year’s “mini-war” in Gaza, this turmoil has drawn some media attention back to a Middle East desperately waiting for an outcome on the Iran nuclear deal. Anticipating a volatile conjuncture between Ramadan 2023 and Israel’s seventy-fifth birthday next year, this e‑Note reflects on the trajectory of the armed factions most connected to these dynamics: Palestinian Hamas and Lebanese Hezbollah.

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Research line: Middle East and North Africa

© Jonathan Khoo on Flickr

e-Note 41

Ramadan 2022: A Time to Reflect…
on Hamas and Hezbollah

Nelly ATLAN & Didier LEROY